A dynamic, growing library of gambling research, testimonies and articles from the experts.
Welcome to the CitizenLink.com online gambling research library. We developed this page and the associated links to help citizens and professionals know and better understand the truth about gambling.
This site is dynamic, in that it will continue to be updated as new research appears and permissions to post articles and papers are granted.
Check often for new research and cite this information as you perform your own research. Currently, authors are listed in alphabetical order. In the near future, a topical option will be available also.
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The National Gambling Impact Study Commission (NGISC)
- Final Report
- Final Report Recommendations
- NORC Research Data
- NGISC Research
- General Information
- NGISC News
U.S. CITIZENS WANT ONLINE GAMBLING TO REMAIN ILLEGAL
A Public Mind Poll from Fairleigh Dickinson University (3-11-2010), surveyed more than 1000 adults nationally about gambling issues, particularly online gambling.
Summary: The majority of U.S. citizens do not want online gambling legalized. Keep Las Vegas in Las Vegas, don’t decriminalize Internet gambling or bring thousands of virtual casinos into our homes.
67% – or two-thirds – of respondents want Internet gambling to remain illegal
46% said casinos have a negative local impact, while 38% say casinos have a positive impact (remaining didn’t know)
A majority also opposed sports betting and legalizing sports betting for government revenues
DECLINES IN COLLEGE CARD AND INTERNET GAMBLING ONE YEAR AFTER U.S. LAW PASSED TO PROHIBIT ONLINE GAMBLING (UIGEA)
Dan Romer, Ph. D, et al., “Card Playing Down Among College-Age Youth; Internet Gambling Also Declines,” The Annenberg Public Policy Center, National Annenberg Survey of Youth, 18 October 2007.
- [A year after the passage of the Unlawful Internet Gambling Enforcement Act (UIGEA)] October 18, 2007 — Card playing for money among college-age youth (18 to 22) has declined, according to the latest National University of Annenberg Survey of Youth. Weekly use of the Internet for gambling also declined among this age group. Both declines are statistically significant.
- “The strong drop in use of Internet sites also suggests that federal legislation restricting the transfer of funds to Internet gambling sites has had its intended effect. Whether this will last remains to be seen,” said Dr. Romer. Access Full Report.
GAMBLING’S POPULARITY DROPPING WITH INCREASED PUBLIC CONCERN
Paul Taylor, Cary Funk, Peyton Craighill, “Gambling: As the Take Rises, So Does Public Concern,” Pew Research Center, social trends report online, 23 May 2006.
Summary: A modest backlash in attitudes toward legalized gambling has taken hold among an American public that spends more money on more forms of legal gambling now than at any time in the nation’s history. Seven-in-ten (70%) Americans say that legalized gambling encourages people to gamble more than they can afford, according to a new Pew Research Center survey. Similarly, 71% of the public today – down from 78% in 1989 – approves of lotteries as a way for states to raise revenue. Public support for other forms of legalized gambling, such as casino, off-track betting on horse racing and pro sports betting, has either been stable or declined since 1989.
LANDFILLS, CASINOS AND POWERPLANTS – MOST UNPOPULAR TYPES OF DEVELOPMENT
Survey conducted by the Center for Economic and Civic Opinion at the University of Massachusetts, Lowell. Reporting source: Jennifer S. Forsyth, Michael Corkery and Christine Haughney, “Plots & Ploys: Stop Right There,” Wall Street Journal, 4 January 2006.
Center for Economic and Civic Opinion. Public Affairs. Key Contact: Louis DiNatale, JD. 978-569-6909 – firstname.lastname@example.org. 978-934-3233 or Renae_Lias@uml.edu UML Study Looks at ‘Green’ Cities Across the Country.
Summary: Landfills, casinos and power plants are the most unpopular types of development in the U.S., according to a recent survey conducted by the Center for Economic and Civic Opinion at the University of Massachusetts, Lowell. The first-time survey, commissioned by the Hingham, Mass.-based Saint Consulting Group, which advises developers on local political issues, asked about 1,000 people around the country for their opinions on development and developers.… About one if five of the people said he had actively opposed development in his community by signing a petition, attending a local government hearing, or some other form of active opposition. …
GROWING CONCERN WITH MORAL CONDITION OF NATION, APPROVAL OF VICES
George Barna, “Morality Continues To Decay,” The Barna Research Group, 3 November 2003.
Summary: More than four out of five adults – 83% – contend that they are concerned about the moral condition of the nation. Given that 84% of all adults consider themselves to be Christian, they have good reason to worry about the moral state of the country: many of their own views conflict with the moral teachings of their professed faith. A majority of Americans believed that each of three activities were “morally acceptable.” Those included gambling (61%), co-habitation (60%), and sexual fantasies (59%).
Research and Reports
U.S. Department of Justice and Other Federal Entities
- Letter from the FBI Cyber Unit - (U.S. Department of Justice; Federal Bureau of Investigation, 13 November 2009) regarding Internet gambling, stating that no software was capable of preventing children or underage teens from gambling online.
- Politics of Poker.com site – This website is dedicated to the memory of every Federal, State, and Local law enforcement officer killed fighting the production, transport, and sale of illegal drugs. Lists reasons why Internet gambling cannot – and should not be “regulated,” and why it poses a threat to our national security.
- Richard C. McCorkle, “Gambling and Crime Among Arrestees: Exploring the Link,” United States Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, July 2004. (Note: This link will leave this site and go to the National Criminal Justice Reference Service site.) Criminal behavior linked to gambling addiction.
- Charles Wellford, “When It’s No Longer A Game: Pathological Gambling in the United States,” National Institute of Justice Journal (NCJ 187713), April 2001, pp.14-18. (Note: This link will leave this site and go to the National Criminal Justice Reference Service site.) Crime and gambling addiction.
- “Internet Gambling: An Overview of the Issues,” National Institute of Justice (NCJ 198168), December 2002. (Note: This link will leave this site and go to the gao.gov site.) Criminal concerns with Internet gambling.
- Earl L. Grinols, Gambling In America: Costs and Benefits, ( New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004). [Book; economics; gambling fails cost-benefit analysis; costs outweigh benefits by a factor greater than 3 to 1; costs per problem and pathological gambling addictions]
- Statement of Earl L. Grinols, Professor of Economics Univ. of Illinois, National Gambling Impact & Policy Comm’n Act: Hearing on H.R. 497 Before the House Comm. on the Judiciary, 104th Cong., 1st Sess. 367-405 (1995). [Economics related to gambling, businesses, jobs; impact on economy; costs of gambling addiction]
- Prepared Statement of Earl L. Grinols, Professor of Economics Univ. of Illinois, The National Impact of Casino Gambling Proliferation: Hearing Before the House Comm. On Small Business, 103d Cong., 2d Sess. 71-76 (1994).
- Earl L. Grinols, “Cutting the Cards and Craps: Right Thinking About Gambling Economics” in Gambling: Who Wins? Who Loses?, G. Reith, ed. Prometheus Contemporary Issues Series, ( New York : Prometheus Books, 2003). [Reprinted with permission.]
- Earl L. Grinols, “Gambling Economics: A Primer,” Faith and Economics, 28, Fall 1996, 25-31. [Reprinted with permission.]
Hardoon K, Gupta R, Derevensky J. Psychosocial variables associated with adolescent gambling. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors. 2004;18:170–179. [PubMed]
2007 National Coalition Against Legalized Gambling conference – NCALG (Washington, D.C.)
- Hills, Chad, “The Gambling Cartel: Associations, Affiliations & Links,” Focus on the Family Action, 2007 NCALG Conference, 12 October 2007 (Power Point presentation, PDF format, 5MB may take a few minutes to load). Note: Handouts are at the end of this presentation. Click here to download only the Gambling Connections Chart.
- See previous NCALG conference reports.
Hills, Chad – “Internet gambling costs what?” [Calculation, blog link, 18 May 2010]
- Summary of Soc. Costs if Internet gambling were decriminalized
- Social Costs Calculations/Updates (two worksheets, updated Grinols, 2010$)
- Internet Gambling Calculations – Estimated Soc. Costs if Decriminalized
Kindt, John Warren (Bio) (Information)
Note: The following articles from “Law Reviews” (abbreviated “L. Rev.”) and “Law Journals” (Abbreviated “L.J.”) are influential with legislators and lawyers. A copy of any or all of the following articles may be downloaded for educational use or information.
- John W. Kindt, Gambling With Terrorism: Gambling’s Strategic Socio-Economic Threat To National Security, address at Harvard Univ., Feb. 10-11, 2007 (event sponsored by Harvard Business School, Harvard Law School and Kennedy School of Government).
- Testimony and Statement of Professor John Warren Kindt, Univ. Ill., Internet Gambling Prohibition Act of 2006: Hearing on H.R. 4777 Before the U.S. House of Representatives Subcomm. On Crime, Terrorism, and Homeland Security.
[Also see testimony of Congressional Rep. Robert Goodlatte, Member of Congress, 6th Congressional District of Virginia, and testimony of Bruce Ohr, Chief of the Organized Crime and Racketeering Section, United States Department of Justice.]
- JWKindt_Testimony_Comm-Resources_109thCongress_Apr-27-2005, 109th Cong., 1st Sess., Apr. 27, 2005.
- Statement of Professor John Warren Kindt, National Gambling Impact & Policy Comm’n Act: Hearing on H.R. 497 Before the House Comm. on the Judiciary, 104th Cong., 1st Sess. 519-27 (1995).
- Statement of Professor John Warren Kindt, The National Impact of Casino Gambling Proliferation: Hearing Before the House Comm. On Small Business, 103d Cong., 2d Sess. 77-81 (1994).
- John W. Kindt, Subpoenaing Information from the Gambling Industry: Will the Discovery Process in Civil Lawsuits Reveal Hidden Violations Including the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act?, 82 OREGON L. REV. 221-294 (2003) (lead article) (reprinted with permission).
- John W. Kindt, “The Insiders” for Gambling Lawsuits: Are the Games “Fair” and Will Casinos and Gambling Facilities be Easy Targets for Blueprints for RICO and Other Causes of Action?, 55 MERCER L. REV. 529-593 (2004) (lead article) (reprinted with permission).
- John W. Kindt, The Gambling Industry and Academic Research: Have Gambling Monies Tainted the Research Environment?, 13 UNIV. S. CALIF. INTERDISCIPLINARY L. J. 1-47 (2003) (lead article) (reprinted with permission).
- John W. Kindt, Gambling with Terrorism and U.S. Military Readiness: Time to Ban Video Gambling Devices on U.S. Military Bases and Facilities?, 24 N. ILL. U. L. REV. 1-39 (2003) (lead article) (reprinted with permission).
- John W. Kindt, Would Re-Criminalizing U.S. Gambling Pump-Prime the Economy and Could U.S. Gambling Facilities Be Transformed into Educational and High-Tech Facilities? Will the Legal Discovery of Gambling Companies’ Secrets Confirm Research Issues?, 8 STANFORD J.L., BUS. & FIN. 169-212 (2003) (lead article) (reprinted with permission).
- John W. Kindt, Diminishing Or Negating The Multiplier Effect: The Transfer of Consumer Dollars to Legalized Gambling: Should A Negative Socio-Economic “Crime Multiplier” be Included in Gambling Cost/Benefit Analyses?, 2003 MICH. ST. DCL L. REV. 281-313 (lead article) (reprinted with permission).
- John W. Kindt, Internationally, The 21st Century Is No Time for the United States to Be Gambling With the Economy: Taxpayers Subsidizing the Gambling Industry and the De Facto Elimination of All Casino Tax Revenues via the 2002 Economic Stimulus Act, 29 OHIO N. UNIV. L. REV. 363-394 (2003) (lead article) (reprinted with permission).
- John W. Kindt & John K. Palchak, Legalized Gambling’s Destabilization of U.S. Financial Institutions and the Banking Industry: Issues in Bankruptcy, Credit, and Social Norm Production, 9 EMORY U. BANKRUPTCY DEV. J. 21-69 2002) (lead article) (reprinted with permission).
- John W. Kindt, The Failure to Regulate the Gambling Industry Effectively: Incentives for Perpetual Non-Compliance, 27 S. ILL. U.L.J. 221-262 (2002) (lead article) (reprinted with permission).
- John W. Kindt & Anne E.C. Brynn, Destructive Economic Policies in the Age of Terrorism: Government-Sanctioned Gambling as Encouraging Transboundary Economic Raiding and Destabilizing National and International Economies, 16 TEMPLE INT’L & COMP. L.J. 243-277 (2002-03) (lead article) (reprinted with permission). J
- John W. Kindt & Stephen W. Joy, Internet Gambling and the Destabilization of National and International Economies: Time for a Comprehensive Ban on Gambling Over the World Wide Web, 80 DENV. U.L. REV. 111-153 (2002) (reprinted with permission).
- John W. Kindt & Thomas Asmar, College and Amateur Sports Gambling: Gambling Away Our Youth?, 8 VILLANOVA SPORTS & ENTERTAINMENT L.J. 221-252 (2002) (lead article) (reprinted with permission).
- John W. Kindt, The Costs of Addicted Gamblers: Should the States Initiate Mega-Lawsuits Similar to the Tobacco Cases?, 22 MANAGERIAL & DECISION ECON. 17-63 (2001) (invited article) (Copyright 2001, John Wiley & Sons Limited, reproduced with permission).
- John W. Kindt, Follow the Money: Gambling, Ethics, and Subpoenas, 556 ANNALS OF THE AM. ACADEMY OF POLITICAL & SOC. SCI., 85-97 (1998) (invited article) (reprinted with permission).
- John W. Kindt, The Business-Economic Impacts of Licensed Casino Gambling in West Virginia, 13 W. VA. U. INST. PUB. AFF. 22-26 (1996) (invited article) (reprinted with permission).
- John W. Kindt, Introducing Casino-Style Gambling into Pre-existing Economies: A Summary of Impacts on Tourism, Restaurants, Hotels, and Small Businesses, 10 N. ARIZ. U., ARIZ. H. RESEARCH & RESOURCE CTR 6-9 (1996) (invited article) (reprinted with permission).
- John W. Kindt, U.S. National Security And The Strategic Economic Base: The Business/Economic Impacts Of Legalized Gambling Activities, 39 ST. LOUIS U.L.J. 567-584 (1995) (invited article) (reprinted with permission).
- John W. Kindt, Legalized Gambling Activities As Subsidized By Taxpayers, 48 ARK. L. REV. 889-931 (1995) (lead article) (reprinted with permission).
- John W. Kindt, Legalized Gambling Activities: The Issues Involving Market Saturation, 15 N. ILL. U. L. REV. 271-306 (1995) (reprinted with permission).
- John W. Kindt, The Economic Impacts of Legalized Gambling Activities, 45 DRAKE L. REV. 51-95 (1994) (reprinted with permission).
- John W. Kindt, The Negative Impacts Of Legalized Gambling On Businesses, 4 U. MIAMI BUS. L.J. 93-124 (1994) (lead article) (reprinted with permission).
- John W. Kindt, Increased Crime and Legalizing Gambling Operations: The Impacts on the Socio-Economics of Business and Government, 30 CRIM L. BULL. 538-555 (1994) (reprinted with permission).
- Statement of Professor John Warren Kindt, Univ. Ill., to the National Gambling Impact Study Commission, “U.S. and International Concerns over the Socio-Economic Costs of Legalized Gambling: Greater than the Illegal Drug Problem?,” Chicago, Ill., May 21, 1998.
- John W. Kindt, U.S. National Security And The Strategic Economic Base: The Business/Economic Impacts Of Legalized Gambling Activities, 39 St. Louis U.L.J. 567-584 (1995), reprinted in National Gambling Impact & Policy Comm’n Act: Hearing on H.R. 497 Before the House Comm on the Judiciary, 104th Cong., 1st Sess. 528-545 (1995).
LaBrie RA, Shaffer HJ, LaPlante DA, Wechsler H. Correlates of college student gambling in the United States. Journal of American College Health. 2003;5:53–62. [PubMed]
Petry, Nancy M.
Nancy M. Petry, Jeremiah Weinstock, “Pathological Gambling College Students’ Perceived Social Support,” Journal of College Student Development, Volume 49, Number 6, November/December 2008, pp. 625-632. Access Full Report [HTML] [PDF] [College students; Internet gambling; pathological gambling; addiction]
- Approximately 40% to 80% of college students have gambled within the last year.
- Lifetime prevalence of of this disorder [pathological gambling addiction] is estimated at 5% in college students, but was elevated for some reason in this large sample of college students (8.9% lifetime prevalence).
- Pathological gambling addiction in college students is associated with poor academic performance, impulsivity, and engagement in other risky behaviors such as illicit drug use.
Petry Nancy M, “Internet gambling: an emerging concern in family practice medicine?” Family Practice, 2006; 23: 421–426.
- These data suggest that Internet gambling is linked to pathological gambling and is independently associated with poor health. Family practice physicians should consider referring patients who gamble on the Internet for further treatment.
William N. Thompson, R. Keith Schwer, Daryl Nakamuro, “Beyond the Limits of Recreation: Social Costs of Gambling in Southern Nevada,” University of Nevada in Las Vegas, research presented at the 2003 Annual Meeting of the Far West and American Popular Culture Association, 1 February 2003. [Commentary]
Williams RJ, Connolly D. Does learning about mathematics of gambling change gambling behavior? Psychology of Addictive Behaviors. 2006;20:62–68. [PubMed]
- Improvement in mathematical knowledge and skill was not associated with any decreases in actual gambling behavior. The implication of this research is that enhanced mathematical knowledge on its own may be insufficient to change gambling behavior. [Implications for creating policies that will protect individuals from predatory gambling practices.]
Research From Other Countries
Gambling Inquiry Report, Australian Productivity Commission Report, 23 June 2010.
- Key Points
- Total recorded expenditure (losses) in Australia reached just over $19 billion in 2008-09, or an average of $1500 per adult who gambled.
- The number of Australians categorised as ‘problem gamblers’ ranges around 115 000, with people categorised as at ‘moderate risk’ ranging around 280 000. Around 15 per cent of regular “Pokie” (video poker machines) players (95 000) are ‘problem gamblers’. And their share of total spending on machines is estimated to range around 40 per cent.
- The significant social cost of problem gambling — estimated to be at least $4.7 billion a year — means that even policy measures with modest efficacy in reducing harm will often be worthwhile.
- Recreational gamblers typically play at low intensity. But if machines are played at high intensity, it is easy to lose $1500 or more in an hour.
Falkiner, T., Horbay, R. (2006) Unbalanced Reel Gaming Machines. Paper presented at the 2006 International Pokies Impact Conference, Melbourne, Australia. [Video slot machines; video gambling machines; cheating gamblers; unfair play; players lose] Tim Falkiner (Information); Roger Horbay (Information)
Rebekah Doley, “Want To Make a Bet? Gambling and Crime in Australasia,” Australasian Centre for Policing Research (NCJ 203695), 2000. (Note: This link will take you out of this site to the Australasian Centre for Policing Research site.)
- “… (3) the increasing incidence of fraudulent conduct being motivated by gambling, reflecting a rise in gambling accessibility …” White collar crimes ; Fraud ; Business crime costs ; Misuse of funds ; Fraud and abuse prevention measures ; Commercial fraud ; Fraud investigations ; New Zealand ; Australia
Wood, R. T., & Williams, R. J. (2009). Internet gambling: Prevalence, Patterns, problems, and policy options. Final Report prepared for the Ontario Problem Gambling Research Centre; Guelph, Ontario.
- Confirming predictions of a relationship between internet gambling and problem gambling, it finds that 42.7 percent of the internet gamblers in the sample can be classified as problem gamblers; Internet gambling; online gambling; notice addiction; children accessing online casinos; irresponsible behavior from online gambling operators; comprehensive list of online sites, statistics for global sites.
The Gambling Commission Annual Report 2005/06, London House of Commons, The Stationery Office (HC 1226- SE/2006/94), 12 July 2006. (Note: This report will take you out of this site and into the United Kingdom Gambling Commission site.)